Archeology radiocarbon dating
The image to the right which is from 2012 shows the structures uncovered."Jericho is believed to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world, with evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BC, providing important information about early human habitation in the Near East. The first permanent settlement was built near the Ein as-Sultan spring between 80 BC by an unknown people, and consisted of a number of walls, a religious shrine, and a 23-foot (7.0 m) tower with an internal staircase." ( earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan (or Tell Sultan), a couple of kilometers from the current city.Arabic tell means "mound" -- consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia.What makes it exceptional is that it is pre- Neolithic.It would be later during the Neolithic that more communities/tribes turned to farming in the Zagros."This site, currently undergoing excavation by German and Turkish archaeologists, was erected by hunter-gatherers at perhaps 11,500 B. (This is believed to be before the advent of sedentariness).Observations on Settlement and Subsistence during the Late La Jolla Complex - Preceramic Interface as Evidenced at Site CA-SDI-11,796, Lower San Diego River Valley, San Diego County, California [SCA Proceedings - PDF].Recovery, Synthesis, and Reporting: 1990s Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Cultural Resources Inventory Conducted by the Archaeological Research Unit, University of California, Riverside [California State Parks].It is currently considered the oldest known shrine or temple complex in the world, and the planet's oldest known example of monumental architecture.""Göbekli Tepe - One of the most exciting discoveries in Turkish archeology this century.It currently stands as the oldest known Megalithic Temple complex in the world (9,000 BC).
Archaeological remains indicate that the site was abandoned and reoccupied on more than one occasion in its history.""Hacilar is another important center in Central Anatolia, near the modern city of Burdur.
Sites of the PPNA culture are found all over Israel, Jordan, Syria, and northern Iraq and a similar early agricultural village of what was probably a closely related culture is found at Catal Huyuk in south-central Turkey. The spread of PPNA probably went along with the spread of a particular language across the Middle East, so PPNA culture was probably spread by one particular people who drove out or absorbed other peoples." ( Höyük began at around. As in Catal Höyük, the houses were mud brick and entered through the roof.
Archaeologists have discovered large numbers of artifacts made from obsidian – black volcanic glass – as well as bone, antler and copper, with an array of blade types.
The Neolithic settlements were contemporary with Catalhoyuk and had a similar technology level.""The next people who came to Ein es Sultan are called PPNA (The initials stand for Pre-Pottery Neolithic A).
They made their settlement at the spring around 8,000 BC. (Though as a well-preserved site at Catal Huyuk, Turkey shows they had wooden vessels).