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While most scholars attribute the Siloam Inscription to the Iron Age II, John Rogerson and Philip Davies argue that it is actually Hasmonean, which raises the question: Which period is a better fit for the Siloam Inscription?

As described in the Siloam Inscription, Hezekiah’s Tunnel was dug by two teams, who worked in opposite directions and met in the middle, to prepare for the invasion of Sennacherib.

Although the 4SH is presented in some textbooks, the modern tendency is to use M and L merely as a symbol for Matthew's and Luke's respective special sources while assuming little as to whether their contents are embodied in a single document, in many documents, or handed down orally. Parker II: A half-century later, Parker augmented his previous theory by adopting Streeter's suggestion for a proto-Luke as the source of the Q and L material (1980), and then mixed in the Griesbach hypothesis by making Mark a conflation of proto-Matthew ( (Weisse 1856; Holtzmann 1863; cf. Ur-Markus was proposed as a lost first edition of Mark that contains the material thought to be problematic when the second source was strictly conceived as a sayings collection on the so-called material (my term) includes the preaching of John the Baptist, the baptism and temptation of Jesus, and the healing of the centurion's boy. Holtzmann, "Zur synoptischen Frage," 1/4 (2001) [pdf]. This solution has a home page by its most prominent American supporters: A Web Site for the Two Gospel Hypothesis. This hypothesis had been perceived as a concession to Q within the Griesbach camp. Streeter also proposed that Q has been combined with Luke's special source L to form a proto-Luke before being combined with Mark and the infancy materials to form the extant Luke (Streeter 1924; Taylor 1926; cf. Scholarly support for proto-Luke has always been tepid with the notable exception of Vincent Taylor and virtually neglected today. Ur-Markus fell out of favor as Q was regarded more flexibly, however and most of those differences between Ur-Markus and Mark were considered to be , an apocryphal gospel that Morton Smith photographed in 1958. The Three-Source Hypothesis 3SH posits three sources for Luke: Mark, Q, and to a lesser extent Matthew to account for the para-Markan material (Holtzmann 1878; Simons 1880; Morgenthaler 1971; Gundry 1992; Price 2001). The Farrer Hypotheis (FH) is also a Markan priority solution, but dispenses with Q as unnecessary, holding that Luke's use of Matthew is sufficiently plausible (Farrer 1955; Goulder 1972; Goodacre 2002; cf. The Farrer Hypothesis is the leading contender to the 2SH in England and is beginning to have some in-roads in North America. Helmut Koester proposed that Matthew and Luke used the first version of Mark (p Mk), which was revised into Secret Mark (d Mk), which in turn was edited to form the extant Mark (Koester 1983). Koester, "History and Development of Mark's Gospel (From Mark to (Macon, Ga.: Mercer UP, 1983): 35-57. Tunnels were dug in very different periods, ranging from the Middle Bronze Age to the Second Temple period.Ronny Reich and Eli Shukron, who have excavated the City of David near the Gihon Spring extensively, believe that the starting point of Hezekiah’s Tunnel was Tunnel IV, which is connected to the Round Chamber of the Rock-cut Pool.

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