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Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known.
For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge.
This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology.
In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.
An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ...
This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community).