Two problems with radiocarbon dating
According to Herodotus, Memphis is founded as the capital of Egypt by Menes.
According to other sources the capital is at the city of 'This' near Abydos, which itself dates back to prehistory.
The first walled towns appeared at Naqada and Heirakonpolis (circa 3300 BC), and were associated with rich tombs, probably the resting places of the rulers of Upper Egypt (to the south).
One of these rulers was the first to unite the whole valley, from the first cataract near the Nubian Desert to the Mediterranean, as a single kingdom in about 3400 or 3100 BC.
From around 3500 to 3000 BC there were great and very sudden advances in craftsmanship and technology, which culminated in the working of copper, stone mace heads and ceramics.
From around 9000 BC, the North African hunter-gatherer inhabitants of the fertile Nile Valley enjoyed the milder post-glacial conditions, domesticating animals and increasing in number.
In the late sixth millennium BC farming villages appeared, as did rock art in some of the region's caves, and the following two millennia saw the gradual formation of small states.
To help grow your subscriber list, the pop-up form is set to single opt-in by default.
If you prefer, you can make your form double opt-in at anytime.